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Typically, when we think of social-cultural factors, what comes to mind first might be “color” or “race.” However, social-cultural factors extend to religious affiliation, specific types of communities, the culture of being a foster child or a child of abuse, children with exceptionalities, single -parent families, LGBT, homelessness, poverty, or migrant workers, etc. These environmental and cultural elements significantly impact one’s social and emotional development and the way that we see ourselves and the world at large. Since our social and emotional lives are intimately tied to our cultural identity, our job as ECEC providers is to possess cultural competence and understand developmental diversity while fostering appreciation and respect of our differences. 

View this chart and read the following articles that discuss Dr. Urie Bronfrenbrenner’s Ecological Systems:



  • Review Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems using this self-check.


Next, think about the infants and toddlers you intend to work with and:


  • Describe the four layers of relationships that influence infant and toddler’s development.
  • What, if anything, does Bronfenbrenner’s theory suggest about importance of resources (family, community, outreach) for typically developing infants and toddler and infants and toddlers with diverse needs?
  • How does your knowledge of the ecological systems theory influence your interactions with students and families experiencing stress? Discuss your ideas.


Please ensure the assignment is at least 250 words in APA format.


Required Reference


Hearron, P. & Hildebrand, V. (2009). Guiding young children. (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson.




 Other References


Banks, J. A., & Banks, C. A. M. (Eds.). (2004). Multicultural education: Issues and perspectives.  Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Greenspan, S. I. (2002). The secure child: Helping our children feel safe and confident in a changing world. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press Books.
Hearron, P. & Hildebrand, V. (2009). Guiding young children. (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson. 
NICHHD. (n.d.). Mother’s and infants around the world: A report of the cross-cultural data collection at five months. Child and Family Research Report 1. Retrieved from  
Rogoff, B., Paradise, R., Arauz, R. M., Correa-Chaves, M., & Angelillo, C. (2003). Firsthand learning through intent participation. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 175-203
Ward-Grodd, S. (2006, May 1). A reflection on developmentally appropriate practice. Retrieved from¬Reflection-¬on-¬Developmentally-¬Appropriate–Practice&id=188467  
Winton, P. J., McCollum, J. A., & Catlett, C. (2008). Practical approaches to early childhood professional development: Evidence, strategies, and resources. Washington DC: Zero to Three